The Witness - Friday, 4 July 1919


MORRISON--IRWIN -- June 26, at Portstewart Presbyterian Church, by Rev. C. H. Irwin, D.D., assisted by Rev. Hugh Morrison, D.D.; Rev. D. Aiken, D.D.; and Rev. A. Parke, B.A., John Morrison, Claggan, Limavady, to Evangeline, daughter of the late Rev. Dr. Irwin, Castlerock, and Mrs. Irwin, Marathon, Portetewart. At home, August 6th, 7th, and 8th.


LINDSAY -- June 29, 1919, at his mother's residence, Lin-cool, Carnmoney, John Lindsay. His remains were interred in Carnmoney Cemetery on Tuesday, 1st July. "His end was peace."

M'MONAGLE -- June 29, at his residence, 38, Cliftonville Avenue, Belfast, Alexander M'Monagle, Editor, "The Witness." Interred in Carnmoney Burying-ground.

WILSON -- June 26, at the residence of her son-in-law, Samuel Gilmer, Rashe, Ballyclare, Mary Isabel, widow of the late Robert B. Wilson, and was interred in Kilbride on Friday at 3 o'clock.

ARMSTRONG -- June 26, at her residence, "Rosemount," Aughnahoe, Lisburn, Mary, widow of the late John Armstrong.

DAWSON -- June 27, at 68, Dufferin Avenue, Bangor, David, the beloved husband of Annie Dawson.

DEANS -- June 19, from heat stroke, at Station Hospital, Delhi, Theodore John Deans, Lieut. 92nd Punjabi Regiment, aged 20 years, eldest son of Rev. John Deans, the Manse, Richhill, Co. Armagh.

DUKE -- June 29, at Union Street, Lurgan, Thomas Duke, in his 87th year.

ECCLES -- June 28, at Ballyrawer, Carrowdore, Rose Anna, youngest and dearly-loved daughter of Hugh and Rose Ann Eccles.

FISHER -- June 28, at Craigduff, Clough, Co. Down, John Fisher, in his 93rd year.

HOGG -- June 27 (suddenly, in motor accident), William, beloved husband of Margaret Hogg, 63, Anglesea Road, Dublin.

HOGG -- July 3, at Portstewart, Annabella Hogg, of 24, College Green, Belfast, younger daughter of the late William Hogg. Funeral private.

MARTIN -- June 27, at a Private Nursing Home, Belfast, Robert Carson Martin, Solicitor, Ballymoney.

MILLER -- June 27, at her residence, Rose Cottage, Broughmore, Lisburn, Jane, widow of the late Robert Miller.

M'KINSTRY -- June 29, at The Hill, Kilcorig, Lisburn, William John, dearly-beloved husband of Eliza M'Kinstry.

ORR -- June 27, at the residence of her daughter (Mrs. Smiley), "Belair," Whitehead, Margaret Semple, widow of the late William Orr, Greenoge, Islandmagee.

PATTERSON -- June 27, at 174a, Greenwell Street, Newtownards, Viola Patterson.

PINKERTON -- June 26, at Dunaverney, Wm. Pinkerton.

POTTER -- June 29, at 14, Mersey Street, Mary, the dearly-beloved wife of William Potter.

ROBINSON -- June 26, 1919, at his residence, 25, Prospect Road, Bangor, David Robinson.

SHANKS -- May 3, at Stratford, Ontario, Robert, third son of the late Thomas Shanks, Belfast.

STEWART -- June 27, at Cargygray, Hillsborough, Samuel, the dearly beloved husband of Hessie Stewart.

THORNBURY -- June 26, at Deag-dun, Waringstown Road, Lurgan, William John Thornbury.

VALENTINE -- June 29, at Cooleen, Jordanstown, Edith Mary, widow of the late James W. Valentine.

WALLACE -- June 28, at Private Nursing Home, William Wallace, sen., Braniel, Castlereagh.

WHITE -- June 26, at his residence, The Green, Ballygoskin, Crossgar, Robert White, in his 92nd year.

WILLIAMSON -- June 29, at her grandmother's residence, Tullynacross, Lisburn, Maud Evelyn, only and dearly-loved child of John and the late Susan Williamson.

HENDERSON -- July 1, at 38 Thorndale Avenue, Bartley Henderson (formerly of Monaghan).

JACKSON -- July 3, at Barnamaghery Crossgar, Martha, elder surviving daughter of the late Samuel Jackson. The remains of our beloved sister will be removed for interment in Raffrey Meeting-house Green, to-morrow (Saturday), at two o'clock p.m. JOHN and MINNIE JACKSON.




First Village Constable in Ireland. -- Rathnew police barracks, Wicklow, have been closed down, and the policemen transferred to other districts, with the exception of one, who is to remain as village constable, this being the first experiment in Ireland of the English system.

Labour and Russia. -- The Labour Party, at the concluding sitting of the annual Conference at Southport, carried a resolution by a large majority, instructing the executive to consult the Parliamentary Committee of the Trade Union Congress with a view to effective action being taken to enforce the demands respecting Allied intervention in Russia by the unreserved use of their political and industrial power.

New Edinburgh Professor. -- Professor Norman Kemp-Smith, holder of the M'Cosh Chair of Philosophy at Princeton University, America, has been appointed by the curator of Edinburgh University to the Chair of Logic and Metaphysics, in succession to Professor Pringle Patterson, resigned. Professor Kemp-Smith, a graduate of St. Andrews University, held university appointments in Glasgow and Manchester before going to Princeton.

Contrite Hearts. -- In an open letter addressed to the Archbishop of Canterbury, the "Neue Freie Press," Vienna, appeals to the Anglican Church to exert her great influence, to prevent a fresh outbreak of war. It says -- "The Church of England is the strongest moral force in the States which are the enemies of the German Empire. If the Church of England should keep silent how it would be the severest blow to her influence upon the raising of men to higher things and to social development."

Free Church Council Policy. -- Dr. F. B. Meyer, who will retire from the hon. secretaryship of the National Free Church Council next March, has been nominated to succeed Dr. A. T. Guttery as president. This will be the second time Dr. Meyer has occupied the office. A special committee has been appointed to report on the desirability of securing a whole-time and salaried secretary in succession to Dr. Meyer, together with such changes in the policy and organisation of the council as may be desirable.

Ducks and Hens or Increased Rents. -- "So many days work of a man and horse in harvest or otherwise so many ducks, capons, or hens at the several times herein." This is one of the reservation clauses in the leases under which Lord Massereene's tenants hold their houses and lands, and Lord Massereene's agent has informed the Antrim Board of Guardians that unless the tenants agree to a reasonable increase of rent in lieu thereof, proceedings will be taken for specific performance of the covenants in the leases.

Belfast Business Appointment. -- Mr. David Motherwell, for many years the well-known manager of the firm of Messrs. David Allen & Sons, Ltd., has been appointed secretary and a director of the company. Mr. Motherwell is highly-esteemed throughout the lithographic and printing trade, with which he has been closely identified for a very long time. He has been associated with Messrs. Allen for about thirty years, during the greater period of which time he has discharged with conspicuous capacity and faithfulness the onerous duties of manager.

Death of Ulster Solicitor. -- The death took place at a private nursing home in Belfast of Mr. R. C. Martin, solicitor, Ballymoney. A man of outstanding ability in his profession, he was held in the highest esteem by the public and admired by his colleagues for his clever advocacy in the courts and his erudition in chambers. A native of Ballybogey, Dervock, he was a staunch Unionist in politics, acting as election agent for Mr. Justice Moore when the Right Hon. R. G. Glendinning congested North Antrim.

Sir E. Carson "at Sea." -- Speaking at a naval luncheon in London, Sir Edward Carson alluded to his term of office as First Lord of the Admiralty, and remarked that he went to the Admiralty with absolutely no qualifications. "That is our method," he added, amid laughter. On the first day he entered that organisation he had an interview with his First Sea Lord (Lord Jellicoe) and one or two others, and he said to them -- "Gentlemen, I have only one qualification for this office to which his Majesty has promoted me, and that is that I feel absolutely at sea."

An Aberdeen-Angus Record. -- At a sale of Aberdeen-Angus cattle at Manning, Iowa, 172 head from the herds of Mr. Charles Escher, jun., and Messrs. Escher and Erwin averaged 440, the total amount realised being 73,260. A rising four-year-old bull made 7,200, the purchaser being Mr. W. H. Cooper. This is a world's record price for the Aberdeen-Angus breed. A rising three-year-old heifer -- a full sister to the bull -- made 2,000, the buyer being Mr. Carl A. Rosenfield, Kelly, Iowa. Most of the females went out at prices ranging from 220 to 1,000.

Haig's Appeal to Trade Unions. -- Speaking at Oxford, where the freedom of the city was presented to him, Sir Douglas, referring to the social problem, said no Government could afford indefinitely to pay out money for the support of the armies of unemployed. The industrial task before them was fully as great as that which their forces had accomplished. He appealed to the trade unions not to stand in the way of ex-service men getting back to work, but to act in the spirit of comradeship in the common interest, so that all they saved from destruction by their enemies might not be thrown away by their own selfishness.

Shortage of Skilled Labour. -- Speaking at a luncheon following the launch of the cruiser Capetown at Birkenhead, Sir George Carter wished that peace could be signed between capital and labour to ensure the country's industrial future. He believed in organised labour, but an unauthorised strike was disorganised labour. There was a great shortage of skilled labour, yet thousands of unskilled men could not be employed because of trade union rules. He said if a uniform measure were adopted by unions, thousands of men now walking the streets could be placed in employment.

Christian Unity. -- Lord Robert Cecil, speaking at the 250th anniversary of Tilehouse Baptist Church, which was founded under the pastoral care of John Bunyan, said he did not think it was possible to exaggerate the harm that divisions had done to the interests of Christianity throughout the world and in the work of the League of Nations. He could not help feeling how much more powerful and effective such a conception would have been if they had had to deal with a united Christendom. National competition carried to its logical conclusion must end in international destruction, and doubtful, difficult, and imperfect as their efforts towards a new system might be, they were bound to make them because the present system was clearly and demonstrably wrong and disastrous

Death of Mr. W. M. Murphy, J.P. -- The death took place at his residence, Dartry, Rathmines, Dublin, of Mr. William M. Murphy, J.P., in his 75th year. Deceased carried out many important railway and electric tramway and lighting undertakings in the United Kingdom, besides constructing railways in the Gold Coast Colony, West Africa. He was President of the Dublin Chamber of Commerce, 1912-13, chairman of the Dublin United Tramways Company; a director of the Great Southern and Western Railway of Ireland; founder of the "Irish Independent," and was prominent in opposition to Syndicarist strikes in Dublin, 1913, organised by James Larkin. The deceased was a member of the Irish Convention, and had been (1885-92) a member of Parliament for one of the Dublin city divisions.

Sinn Fein Headquarters Raided. -- Many documents were seized and taken away by the police in a raid which they made on the Sinn Fein headquarters, Harcourt Street, Dublin, on Saturday. The seizures included a number of letters sent to the press in "refutation" of Mr. Macpherson's statement on the report of the Irish-American delegates, and which had been suppressed, and a series of De Valera's on the British Navy League's manifesto, in which Ireland was referred to as "the Heligoland of the Atlantic." Troops were on guard outside the building while the raid was in progress, and their departure was the signal for a hostile demonstration by the crowd which had collected. Immediately the soldiers and police had left a blackboard was displayed from the house, bearing the inscription in chalk -- "Peace with E---- Never!"

Belfast and Education. -- Captain Herbert Dixon, M.P., addressing his constituents in Pottinger Division, said that many of the schools in Belfast were a disgrace; but in a few years they hoped, with the new education measure which was promised, to have schools that would be second to none in the United Kingdom, or, for that matter, in the whole world. He was pleased to state that neither he nor any other member of the Ulster Unionist party felt pessimistic about the Education Bill. They had fought the first round, and the battle had so far ended in a draw; but they were not beaten. (Applause.) Before long an Education Bill would be brought in for all Ireland, and under it, when passed, the teachers would get better pay, while the schools would be made thoroughly suitable for the children. But much more important than that was the fact that secondary and college education would be open to the sons and daughters of working men.

A Flight Speed Record. -- Lieut. Aviator Papa, at Turin, broke the world's record for speed held by the French aviator Lacomte, covering 159 miles in one hour. He carried 2 passengers.

Viceroy and Belfast. -- The Lord Lieutenant (Viscount French) has consented to visit Belfast in connection with the official Peace celebrations, which will include an inspection of demobilised soldiers.

Woman's Military Funeral. -- A Military escort attended the funeral of Mrs. Emma Buckley to Aldershot military cemetery. Mrs. Buckley was the widow of a soldier whom she accompanied on his services all over the world, and she had 85 descendants connected with the army.

Salvation Army. -- Speaking at a Jubilee Celebration Service in Dublin in connection with the Salvation Army, Colonel W. T. Johnston, I R.A.M.C., said that he felt that the Salvation Army had done one of the greatest things in the world by its work, which had aroused interest and sympathy, and which would live for ever.

Disastrous Earthquake. -- Serious earthquakes occurred in the districts around Florence and Bologna, and up to the present over 150 deaths and several hundred wounded are reported. Numerous villages have been wiped out, and the terror-stricken inhabitants, deprived of their homes, are camping in the open.

Dublin "Peace" Scenes. -- Exciting and disorderly scenes were associated with the peace rejoicing in Dublin. On Saturday night military and civilians came into conflict in various parts of the city, and in O'Connell Street a military motor lorry was held up end set on fire. On Sabbath night the scenes of disorder were renewed, and, following a collision between police and civilians, a policeman was shot, but was not seriously injured.

Women as Magistrates. -- A third reading was given in the House of Lords to the Justices of the Peace (Qualification of Women) Bill, an amendment by Lord Strachie that it should only only to women who had attainted the age of thirty being carried by 35 votes to 17. The National Council of Great Britain and Ireland adopted a resolution urging legislation permitting women to sit on juries and as magistrates.

Noted Surgeon's Death. -- The death took place in Dublin of Mr. Richard D. Purefoy, LLD., M.D., F.R.C.S.I., one of the best known surgeons in Ireland. He was a Fellow, past president, and member of the Council of the Royal College of Surgeons of Ireland, and Master of the Rotunda Hospital for seven years. He was a man of brilliant literary attainments, a member of the Royal Irish Academy, and the Royal Dublin Society.

Lurgan Resident's Death. -- The death has occurred of Mr. Thomas Duke, at Union Street, Lurgan, in his 87th year. For over 50 years he was engaged in the linen trade. Some years ago, transferring the business to his nephews, he entered more actively into agricultural pursuits, in which he was greatly interested. He was a man of great integrity, upright and straightforward in all his dealings. All his life he was a member of First Lurgan Presbyterian Church.

Clergyman and Modern Women. -- "Be equal to any man, but always be a woman," was the advice given by the Rev. A. H. M'Neile, D.D., in distributing prizes to girls at Rutland High School, Dublin. He proceeded -- "We should all think it very unnatural and horrible for a man to look and speak and behave like a woman. Why should it be less unnatural and horrible for a woman to speak, and look, and behave like a man? I don't see why the women should have it both way's. You see women who expect to be treated as women, and yet they want to behave like men."

Former Colonial Premier Dead. -- The death is announced of the Right Hon. W. P. Schreiner, High Commissioner for the Union of South Africa in London, and formerly Premier for Cape Colony. Deceased was one of two distinguished brothers of the popular novelist, Olive Schreiner. He took the side of the Boers in the South African war, and resigned the Premiership of Cape Colony on that account in 1900. Since the Boer war he has not been less devoted to the Imperial interest than General Botha and Smuts. Mr. Schreiner was an accomplished scholar, a distinguished lawyer, and popular and effective on the platform. He was 62 years of age.

Ulster Landlord's Complaint. -- Sir Robt. J. Kennedy, Cultra Manor, Co. Down, in a letter to the press, complains that on May 1, 1908, he sold, under the Wyndham Act of 1903 by agreement with the tenants, his agricultural estate. Pending payment by the Government of the agreed purchase price he has since received from them only 3½p.c, per annum, instead of 4 per cent., which represents the value of the rental, thus causing a loss to him of ½per cent, per year. The tenants also suffer, and complain the delay in completing the purchase. If the Government, he concluded, pay him the money so long overdue he will place it in the Victory Loan.

Belfast Organist's Death. -- Mr Wm. Henry M'Dade, whose death at his residence, Albert Villa, Victoria Road, Sydenham, has been so deeply regretted, was a well-known Belfast organist, who in his day was associated with various Methodist churches and had charge of the Imperial Choir. He was an official in the Public Health department of the Corporation and was prominently identified with the Orange and Masonic orders. The funeral to the City Cemetery was largely attended; a short service was conducted in the house by the Rev. W. S. Carey, and at the graveside the Rev. T. J. Allen and the Rev. J. R. Wesley Roddie officiated. The chief mourners were -- Master William Henry M'Dade (son), Mr. Joseph A. M'Dade and Mr. John M'Dade (brothers), Mr. Harold A. M'Dade, Mr. E. M'Dade, Mr. S. M'Cleery, and Mr. T. M'Dade (nephews); Mr. T. G. M'Cleery and Mr. S. Young (brothers-in-law); Mr. C. M'Cadden, Mr. A. M'Cadden, and Dr. Hugh Irvine (cousins). The funeral arrangements were carried out by Messrs. Melville & Co., Ltd.

Fallen "Padres." -- Speaking at a memorial service for members of the Royal Army Chaplains' Department at Westminster Abbey, the Archbishop of Canterbury said that when the war broke out it fell to the leaders of every Christian Church to distribute their spiritual force aright. That day they were thanking God specially for the work -- faithful, if need arose, until death -- of those whose ministry was wrought amongst the thousands of our lads in the camps and battlefields abroad, or at the teeming ports and bases, or out upon the sea. In the Church of England more than 7,000 clergy offered themselves for whole time service with the troops. Commissions were given to 3,060. One hundred of these laid down their lives, 176 were wounded or disabled and our annals were enriched for Church and people by the recorded heroism of not a few. "The other Churches of our land," said the Archbishop, "have in proportion their corresponding facts. With them our link has grown closer as, in face of the great issues of life and death, we have worked together. Let that cementing bond grow ever stronger."

Menace to Civilisation. -- Mr. Seddon, the Labour leader, who was formerly a Home Ruler, speaking at a meeting in London, described Sinn Fein and Bolshevism as a menace to civilisation. He was convinced that the Dublin Labour movement was revolutionary.

Irish Labour Party. -- Belfast Labour Representation Committee have been directed by the English Labour Party to affiliate with the Irish Labour Party. Five candidates for the next municipal elections in Belfast are to be nominated by the Independent Labour Party.

M.P. Fears Another War. -- The blind folly of the peace terms imposed on Germany has strewn Europe with the seeds of another war, says Mr. H. B. Lees-Smith, Liberal M.P., who has joined the Labour Party because he believes safety for civilisation lies in Labour and Socialist Governments.

Irish Housing. -- When the Irish Housing Bill was considered by a Standing Committee of the House of Commons the Irish members took exception to its financial provisions. The Chief Secretary said that the payment by the state of 1 for every 1 collected in rent was most generous financial treatment.

Cost of Food. -- Mr. M'Curdy stated in the House of Commons that the cost of living, so far as the average cost of essential foodstuffs was concerned, had materially decreased since the date of the armistice. Rises in the prices of some foodstuffs were due to speculators in those particular articles.

Increasing Insurance Limit. -- Under the new National Health Insurance Bill a very large number of non-manual workers, who ceased to be insurable owing to their incomes exceeding 160 a year during the past two or three years, will again come within the scope of the Act, the insurable limit having been extended to 250 a year.

Trinity Degree for Lord French. -- The honorary degree of LL.D. will be conferred on the Lord Lieutenant by the Senate of Trinity College to-day. Honorary degrees will also be conferred on other former Trinity students and military men, in recognition of their services during the war. Latin orations will be delivered the Public Orator, Major Tate, and a Senior Fellow.

4s 6d a Ton on Coal. -- In the House of Commons, Mr. Bridgman informed Mr. Lambert that the estimated deficit falling on the public exchequer for the year commencing July 15 next in coal, sold at to-day's prices, and after taking into account the concessions made in the recommendations at the Sankey Commission, was 46,600,000. An increase of about 4s 6d per ton would be necessary to meet the deficiency.

Position of Pensioned Teachers. -- The Commissioners of National Education received sympathetically a deputation which waited on them to urge the claims of Irish pensioned teachers to be placed on the same level as the Scotch pensioners under the new Act. The deputation, consisting of Messrs. J. R. Bradshaw, Cappamore; M. Doyle, Ballymote; J. P. O'Connell, Cork; E. Mansfield, Tipperary, pointed out that the average pension was under 16s a week.

Enthronement of a Bishop. -- At Cashel Right Rev. Dr. Miller was formerly enthroned as Protestant Bishop of Cashel and Emly in succession to Right Rev. Dr. O'Hara. Canon Stoney, Dublin, delivered an address, and subsequently the Synod extended a welcome to Dr. Miller. In reply Dr. Miller said that though the war was at an end they were confronted with many difficulties at home, but they should build on the power of holy life and example.

Guaranteed Prices for Cereals. -- The time limit for lodging claims with the police under the scheme of guaranteed prices to growers of wheat, oats, or barley has been extended to July 14. Excellent prices are guaranteed and will be paid in respect of each acre grown, and the amount will be the same whether the corn is sold off, or consumed on, the farm, and whether the crop is light or heavy. Claims must be made on the form which can be obtained at any police barracks.

Treatment of Consumption. -- There was scarcely any provision for advanced cases of consumption in Ireland, said Lady Aberdeen at the concluding session of the conference of the Royal Institution of Health in London. The sanatoria, she continued, took in these cases and the result was not good. A suggestion to make work-houses available was not likely to succeed, because of the detestation in which those institutions were held, and it was only now that medical inspection of schools was about to be introduced.

Death of County Antrim Landowner. -- The death of Mr. Samuel Allen, M.A., LL.D., D.L., Lisconnan, Dervock, has taken place after a long illness. Deceased, who was born at Kingstown in 1842, was educated at Trinity College, Dublin, and at Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, and in 1869 was called to the Irish Bar, and joined the North-West Circuit. He was a landowner in County Antrim, in which county he frequently served as Grand Juror since 1877, and was High Sheriff in 1886. He was a staunch and unwavering Unionist.

Pulpit Exchange. -- The Bishop of Norwich (Dr. Pollock) preached at St. Mary's Baptist Church, Norwich, on the occasion of its 250th anniversary. Dealing with the question of interchange of pulpits, the Bishop made a constructive proposal. From the side of the Church of England, he said, he would protect such action by asking that a preacher should previously signify that he assented to the first three articles of what was known as the Lambeth Quadrilateral of 1888, relating -- (a) to the Scriptures as the standard of faith; (b) to the creeds as respectively the baptismal symbol and the sufficient statement of Christian faith; (c) to the two sacraments ordained by Christ, ministered with unfailing use of Christ's words and of the elements ordained by Him. The preacher should also signify that he did not propose to speak on the subject of Church order unless previously invited to do so. The sermon should be preached at the request of the incumbent and the churchwardens or church council, and the sanction of the Bishop and of the corresponding authority on the other side should be obtained. To take a definite action like this, added the Bishop, would mark a real unity as far as it went, and would not pretend to be what it was not.



A memorial tablet to those who fell and those who served in the great war has been unveiled in First Donaghadee Presbyterian Church by the Rev. A. Wylie Blue, of May Street Church, Belfast. Thirty-four members served in the great war in the Navy, Army, and Air Force. Five made the supreme sacrifice -- one on the Eastern and four on the Western front -- and their names are inscribed at the top of the tablet. Then follow the names of those who served. There are also the names of eight women who served in hospital. The tablet consists of a brass plate surmounted by a laurel wreath and dates 1914-1919 in relief in cast bronze, the whole mounted on polished black marble, and is an excellent piece of workmanship. The work was designed and executed by Messrs. Purdy & Millard, 20, Howard Street, Belfast.



Sincere regret will be occasioned by the announcement of the death of Mr. William Rea, 3, Ashley Villas, Cliftonville Road. The deceased was a native of Co. Armagh, having been born midway between Lurgan and Portadown some 78 years ago. At an early age he came to Belfast, where he became identified with the linen trade. Keenly interested in the Gospel work, he was subsequently appointed to the position of missionary of Argyle Place Presbyterian Church, from which post he retired about two years ago after faithful service covering a period of a quarter of a century. Amongst all classes of the community he was held in the highest esteem, but it is perhaps by the poor of Shankill district -- amongst whom he was renowned for his generous financial assistance as well as practical sympathy in other forms -- that he will be most sadly missed, for in his passing hence they have lost a friend indeed. He is survived by two sons (Messrs. William and James Rea) and three daughters (Miss Mary Rea, Mrs. H. M'Kibbin, and Miss Annie Rea), to whom sincere sympathy is extended in their sad bereavement.


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